The information in this article applies to:
This article describes the functionality and limitations of the Windows 2000 Recovery Console. The Recovery Console is designed to help you recover when your Windows 2000-based computer does not start properly or at all.
With the Windows 2000 Recovery Console you can obtain limited access to NTFS, FAT, and FAT32 volumes without starting the Windows graphical interface. In the Recovery Console you can:
Starting the Recovery ConsoleTo start the Recovery Console, use any of the following methods:
Using the Command ConsoleAfter you start the Recovery Console, you receive the following message:
After you enter the number for the appropriate Windows 2000 installation, enter the Administrator account password. Note that if you use an incorrect password 3 times, the Recovery Console quits. Also, if the SAM database is missing or damaged, you are not be able to use the Recovery Console because you cannot be properly authenticated. After you enter your password and the Recovery Console starts, typing exit restarts your computer.
Restrictions and Limitations of the Command ConsoleFrom the Recovery Console you can only use the following folders:
HELPThe help command lists all of the following supported commands:
attrib delete fixboot md type cd dir fixmbr mkdir systemroot chdir disable format more chkdsk diskpart help rd cls enable listsvc ren copy exit logon rename del expand map rmdir
ATTRIBThe attrib command with any of the following parameters can change attributes of a file or folder:
-RNOTE: At least one attribute must be set or cleared. To view attributes, use the dir command.
CD and CHDIRThe cd and chdir commands change the folder. Typing cd .. specifies that you want to change to the parent folder. Type cd drive: to display the current folder in the specified drive. Type cd without parameters to display the current drive and folder. The chdir command treats spaces as delimiters. Because of this, you must enclose a subfolder name that contains a space with quotation marks. For example:
cd "\winnt\profiles\username\programs\start menu"The chdir command only operates within the system folders of the current installation of Windows 2000, removable media, the root folder of any hard disk partition, or the local installation sources.
CHKDSKchkdsk drive /p /r
Checks, and if needed, repairs or recovers a drive. Also marks bad sectors and recovers readable information.
where drive specifies the drive to check.
The /p switch instructs CHKDSK to do an exhaustive check of the drive even if the drive is not marked with problems and corrects any errors found. The /r switch locates bad sectors and recovers readable information. Note that specifying the /r switch implies the /p switch. The chkdsk command may be specified without arguments, in which case the current drive is implied with no switches. Optionally, the listed switches are accepted. The chkdsk command requires the Autochk.exe file. Chkdsk automatically locates this file in the bootup folder. This would typically be the Cmdcons folder if the Command Console was pre-installed. If it cannot be found in the bootup folder, Chkdsk tries to locate the Windows 2000 CD-ROM installation media. If the installation media cannot be found, Chkdsk prompts you to provide the location of the Autochk.exe file.
CLSClears the screen.
COPYcopy source destination
Copies a file.
where source specifies the file to be copied. Wildcards or folder copies are not permitted. A compressed file from the Windows 2000 CD-ROM is automatically decompressed as it is copied.
where destination specifies the folder or file name for the new file. If this is not specified, it defaults to the current folder. If the file already exists, you are prompted to overwrite it.
DEL and DELETEdel drive: path filename
delete drive: path filename
Deletes a file.
where drive: path filename specifies the file to delete.
The delete command only operates within the system folders of the current Windows 2000 installation, removable media, the root folder of any hard disk partition, or the local installation sources. The delete command does not accept wild card (*) characters.
DIRdir drive: path filename
Displays a list of files and subfolders in a folder.
where drive: path filename specifies drive, folder, and/or files to list. The dir command lists all files including hidden and system files. Files may have the following attributes:
The dir command only operates within the system folders of the current Windows 2000 installation, removable media, the root folder of any hard disk partition, or the local installation sources.D - Directory R - Read-only file H - Hidden file A - Files ready for archiving S - System file C - Compressed E - Encrypted P - Reparse Point
The disable command disables a Windows 2000 system service or driver.
where servicename specifies the name of the service or driver to be disabled. Use the listsvc command to display all eligible services or drivers to disable. The disable command prints the old start type of the service before resetting it to SERVICE_DISABLED. Because of this, you should record the old start type, in case it is necessary to re-enable the service.
The start_type values that the disable command displays are:
DISKPARTdiskpart /add /delete device_name drive_name partition_name size
Use the diskpart command to manage the partitions on your hard disk volumes.
where /add create a new partition.
where /delete delete an existing partition.
where device_name is the device name for creating a new partition. The name can be obtained from the output of the MAP command. For example: \Device\HardDisk0
where drive_name is a drive-letter based name for deleting an existing partition. Example D:
where partition_name is a partition-based name for deleting an existing partition and can be used in place of the drive name argument. Example: \Device\HardDisk0\Partition1
where size is the size of the new partition in megabytes.
NOTE: If no arguments are used, a user interface for managing your partitions appears.
WARNING: This command can damage your partition table if the disk has been upgraded to a dynamic disk configuration. Do not modify the structure of dynamic disks unless you are using the Disk Management tool.
ENABLEenable servicename start_type
You can use the enable command to enable a Windows 2000 system service or driver.
where servicename is the name of the service or driver to be enabled. Use the listsvc command to display all eligible services or drivers to enable. The enable command prints the old start type of the service before resetting it to the new value. You should note the old value, in case it is necessary to restore the start type of the service.
where start_type valid start_type values are:
SERVICE_BOOT_STARTNOTE: If you do not specify a new start type, the enable command prints the old start type for you.
EXITYou can use the exit command to quit the Command Console and restart your computer.
EXPANDexpand source [/F:filespec] [destination] [/y] expand source [/F:filespec] /D
where source specifies the name of the file to be expanded. May not include wildcards.
where destination specifies the directory for the new file. If not specified, this defaults to the current folder.
/Y Do not prompt before overwriting an existing file.
/F:filespec If the source contains more than one file, this parameter is required to identify the specific file(s) to be expanded. May include wildcards.
/D Do not expand; only display a directory of the files which are contained in the source.
The destination may be any directory within the system directories of the current Windows installation, The root of the drive, the local installation sources, or the cmdcons directory.
The destination cannot be removable media.
The destination file cannot be read-only. Use the ATTRIB command to remove the read-only attribute.
EXPAND prompts if the destination file already exists unless /Y is used.
FIXBOOTfixboot drive name:
Writes new Windows 2000 boot sector code on the boot partition. This fixes problems where the Windows 2000 boot sector is corrupted. The Emergency Repair process also fixes the boot sector.
where drive name: is the drive letter where the boot sector will be written. This overrides the default of writing to the system boot partition.
FIXMBRfixmbr device name
Repairs the master boot record (MBR) of the system partition. This is used in scenarios where a virus has damaged the MBR and Windows 2000 cannot start.
WARNING: This command has the potential to damage your partition tables if a virus is present or a hardware problem exists. This command may lead to inaccessible partitions. Microsoft suggests running antivirus software before using this command.
where device name is an optional device name that specifies the device that needs a new MBR. The name can be obtained from the output of the map command. If this is left blank, the boot device's MBR is fixed. For example:
fixmbr \device\harddisk2If Fixmbr detects an invalid or non-standard partition table signature, it prompts you for permission before rewriting the MBR.
FORMATformat drive: /Q /FS:file-system
Formats the specified drive to the specified file system.
where drive is the drive letter of the partition to format.
where /Q performs a quick format of the drive.
where /FS:file-system specifies the type of file system to use (FAT, FAT32, or NTFS). If none is specified, the existing file system format is used, when available.
LISTSVCThe listsvc command lists all available services, drivers and their start types for the current Windows 2000 installation. This may be useful when using the disable and enable commands.
NOTE: These are extracted from the %SystemRoot%\System32\Config\SYSTEM hive. Should the SYSTEM hive become damaged or missing, unpredictable results may occur.
The logon command lists all detected installations of Windows 2000 and Windows NT, and then requests the local administrator password for the copy of Windows you chose to log on to. If more than three attempts to logon do not succeed, the console quits and your computer restarts.
The map command lists drive letters, file system types, partition sizes and mappings to physical devices.
where the arc parameter tells the map command to use ARC paths instead of Windows Device paths.
MD and MKDIRThe md or mkdir commands create new folders. Wildcard characters are not supported. The mkdir command only operates within the system folders of the current installation of Windows 2000, removable media, the root folder of any hard disk partition, or the local installation sources.
The MORE command displays a text file to the screen.
RD and RMDIRThe rd and rmdir commands delete a folder.
These commands only operate within the system folders of the current Windows 2000 installation, removable media, the root folder of any hard disk partition, or the local installation sources.
REN and RENAMEThe ren and rename commands can rename a file. Note that you cannot specify a new drive or path for your destination file. These commands only operate within the system folders of the current Windows 2000 installation, removable media, the root folder of any hard disk partition, or the local installation sources.
SETThe set command allows you to display or modify four environment options.
AllowWildCards = FALSE AllowAllPaths = FALSE AllowRemovableMedia = FALSE NoCopyPrompt = FALSE
SYSTEMROOTThe systemroot command sets the current working folder to the %SystemRoot% folder of the Windows 2000 installation you are currently logged into.
The type command displays a text file.
Additional query words: win2000hotperf kbfaqw2ksetup
Keywords : kbtool
Last Reviewed: August 2, 2001